- •The respiratory bacterial microbiota is dynamic, changing significantly during periods of increased risk for bovine respiratory disease.
- •The respiratory microbiota is inhabited predominantly by 5 bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Tenericutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes; the relative abundance of each differs by animal age and production system.
- •Upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract microbiotas differ in diversity and composition. The nasopharyngeal microbiota contributes the most to the lower respiratory microbiota and thus should be the primary target for sampling or modulation strategies.
- •Composition of the respiratory microbiota is associated with respiratory health; increased abundances of respiratory Lactobacillus and/or Lactococcus are associated with good respiratory health.
- •Intranasal application of selected Lactobacillus strains modifies the composition of the nasopharyngeal microbiotas in cattle and can provide colonization resistance against opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica.
Composition of the bacterial respiratory microbiota in healthy cattle
|Type||Study Design||Phylum Level||Genus Level||Reference|
|Postweaned feedlot beef calves||Cross-sectional; 2 populations (BRD, n = 82; healthy, n = 82)||Proteobacteria (69.3%), Tenericutes (22.5%), Firmicutes (3.3%), Actinobacteria (2.3%), Bacteroidetes (2.3%)||Mycoplasma (22.2%), Moraxella (19.5%), Histophilus (19.0%), Psychrobacter (9.8%), Mannheimia (6.3%), Pasteurella (4.4%), Pseudomonas (1.8%)||McMullen et al,|
|Longitudinal; 4 populations (BRD at entry, n = 22; BRD at diagnosis; n = 22, healthy at entry, n = 44; healthy at diagnosis, n = 10)||Proteobacteria (34.8%), Firmicutes (18.6%), Actinobacteria (17.2%), Bacteroidetes (12.1%), Tenericutes (11.2%), Fusobacteria (1.2%)||Moraxella (10.9%), Mycoplasma (10.7%), Acinetobacter (9.7%), Rathayibacter (5.0%), Promicromonospora (4.4%), Mannheimia (4.1%), Solibacillus (3.5%), Clostridium (3.3%), Corynebacterium (3.8%), Pasteurella (1.9%)||Zeineldin et al,|
|Longitudinal; 2 populations of 30 calves sampled at the ranch (d 0), at feedlot entry (d 2), and on d 7 and d 28 after entry||Tenericutes (41.1%), Proteobacteria (31.8%), Firmicutes (4.6%)||Mycoplasma (40.8%), Moraxella (18.7%), Pasteurella (6.8%), Mannheimia (3.8%)||Stroebel et al,|
|Longitudinal; 1 population of 4 calves sampled at feedlot entry and on d 60 after entry||Proteobacteria (68.9%), Firmicutes (19.2%)||At entry: Pseudomonas (23.7%), Shewanella (23.5%), Acinetobacter (17.5%), Carnobacterium (12.2%). At d 60: Staphylococcus (20.8%), Mycoplasma (14.9%), Mannheimia (10.4%), Moraxella (9.4%)||Holman et al,|
|Longitudinal; 1 population of 30 calves sampled at the ranch (d 0), at feedlot entry (d 2), and on d 40 after entry||Tenericutes (53.2%), Proteobacteria (34.7%), Firmicutes (4.2%), Bacteroidetes (3.7%), Actinobacteria (3.4%)||NR||Timsit et al,|
|Longitudinal; 2 populations (treated with NORS [n = 10] or tilmicosin [n = 10] at entry) sampled at entry, and on d 1, d 5, and d 10 after entry||Tenericutes (92.8%), Proteobacteria (5.9%), Firmicutes (0.6%), Actinobacteria (0.6%), Bacteroidetes (0.1%)||NR||Timsit et al,|
|Cross-sectional; 3 populations (controls, n = 5; medium selenium, n = 6; high selenium, n = 5)||Proteobacteria (31.7%), Bacteroidetes (27.5%), Firmicutes (24.3%), Actinobacteria (7.1%), Tenericutes (4.4%)||NR||Hall et al,|
|Longitudinal; 1 population of 13 calves sampled at the ranch (d 0), at feedlot entry (d 2) and on d 5 and d 12 after entry||Proteobacteria (36.1%), Firmicutes (20.1%), Tenericutes (19.3%), Actinobacteria (12.7%), Bacteroidetes (8.6%)||NR||Amat et al,|
|Preweaned and postweaned beef calves||Longitudinal; 3 populations of 40 calves sampled at initial vaccination, weaning and on d 40 after entry at feedlots||Proteobacteria (27.5%), Actinobacteria (25.9%), Tenericutes (24.3%), Firmicutes (13.5%)||Mycoplasma (24.1%), Lactococcus (10.7%), Moraxella (7.4%), Histophilus (6.78%), Pasteurella (6.0%)||McMullen et al,|
|Preweaned dairy calves||Longitudinal; 1 population of 81 calves sampled at 3 d, 14 d, and 35 d of age||Proteobacteria (52.1%), Firmicutes (23.0%), Bacteroidetes (11.4%), Tenericutes (3.4%)||NR||Lima et al,|
The Nasopharyngeal Microbiota from Birth to 1 Month of Age in Dairy Calves
The Nasopharyngeal Microbiota from Initial Vaccination to Preconditioning or Weaning in Beef Cattle (ie, Preweaned Beef Cattle)
The Nasopharyngeal Microbiota from Weaning to the First Weeks on Feed in Beef Cattle (ie, Postweaned Beef Cattle)
Composition of the Lower Respiratory Tract Microbiota
Influence of the bacterial microbiota on respiratory health
Role of the Composition of the Microbiota on Respiratory Health
- Timsit E.
- Hallewell J.
- Booker C.
- et al.
- McDaneld T.G.
- Kuehn L.A.
- Keele J.W.
|Type||Study Design||Sample Type||Main Findings||Reference|
|Postweaned feedlot beef calves||Cross-sectional: 2 populations (dead calves with lung lesions at necropsy, n = 15; non-BRD related mortality, n = 3)||BAL collected at necropsy||M haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and H somni were relatively abundant (>5%) in most but not all BRD samples. Other relatively abundant genera (>1%) included Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Enterococcus, and Pseudomonas. Mycoplasma bovis was not detected in non-BRD lung samples.||Klima et al,|
|Cross-sectional: 2 populations (BRD, n = 82; healthy pen-matched, n = 82)||DNS||Bacterial communities differed between BRD and CTRL groups. Relative abundance of H somni, M haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, or P multocida did not differ between BRD and CTRL groups. The proportion of samples that contained Mycoplasma bovis was higher, however, in the BRD group (43.90%) compared with the CTRL group (18.29%). Richness was lower in cattle with BRD.||McMullen et al,|
|Cross-sectional over 5 wk after feedlot entry: 4 populations (calves sampled in 2015: BRD, n = 25 [5 pooled samples]; healthy, n = 30 [6 pooled samples]) and calves sampled in 2016: BRD, n = 8 [16 pooled samples]; healthy, n = 38 [10 pooled samples])||NS and DNS||Bacterial communities differed between BRD and CTRL groups only in 2016 (not in 2015). In 2016, Psychrobacter was more abundant in calves with BRD compared with CTRL in weeks 4 and 5 after feedlot entry, whereas Moraxella was greater in calves with BRD compared with CTRL throughout all 5 wk after feedlot entry.||McDaneld et al,|
|Cross-sectional: 2 populations (BRD, n = 60; healthy pen-matched, n = 60)||DNS and TTA||Bacterial communities present within the airways clustered into 4 distinct metacommunities that were associated with sampling locations and health status. Metacommunity 1, enriched with Mycoplasma bovis, M haemolytica, and P multocida, was dominant in the nasopharynx and trachea of cattle with BRD. In contrast, metacommunity 3, enriched with Mycoplasma dispar, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus casei, was present mostly in the trachea of CTRL cattle. Metacommunity 4, enriched with Corynebacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Psychrobacter, and Planomicrobium, was present in the nasopharynx only. Metacommunity 2, enriched with H somni, Moraxella, and L lactis, was present in both BRD and CTRL cattle. Richness and diversity were lower in the trachea and nasopharynx of cattle with BRD.||Timsit et al,|
|Longitudinal; 4 populations (BRD at entry, n = 22; BRD at diagnosis; n = 22; healthy at entry, n = 44; healthy at diagnosis, n = 10)||DNS||Bacterial communities differed between BRD and CTRL groups. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria was higher in BRD calves vs CTRL (32.12% vs 16.32%). Actinobacteria (38.20% vs 16.58%) and Fusobacteria (3.86% vs 0.03%) were higher in CTRL. At the genus level, Acinetobacter (12.54% vs 2.16%), Solibacillus (3.71% vs 0.02%), and Pasteurella (2.38% vs 0.03%) were higher in BRD. Mycoplasma and Moraxella were numerically higher in BRD (but P > .05). Rathayibacter (20.09% vs 3.96%) was higher in CTRL. No difference in bacterial diversity and richness was observed between BRD and CTRL.||Zeineldin et al,|
|Longitudinal: 2 populations of calves sampled at feedlot entry and on 60 d after entry (BRD, n = 5; healthy, n = 5)||DNS||Bacterial communities differed between BRD-CTRL groups at d 0 and d 60. At the phylum level, abundance of Actinobacteria was lower in BRD cattle. At the family level, there was a greater relative abundance of Micrococcaceae (d 0), Lachnospiraceae (d 60), Lactobacillaceae (d 0), and Bacillaceae (d 0) in CTRL. Richness and diversity were lower in the nasopharynx of cattle with BRD at d 0 and d 60.||Holman et al,|
|Post-weaned beef calves (not feedlot)||Cross-sectional: 2 populations (BRD, n = 8; healthy, n = 11)||DNS and TTA||No difference in bacterial communities between BRD and CTRL groups.||Nicola et al,|
|Preweaned and post-weaned dairy calves||Cross-sectional: 3 populations (clinical BRD with lung lesions at necropsy, n = 6; clinically healthy with lung lesions at necropsy, n = 12; clinically healthy without lung lesions at necropsy, n = 8)||Lung tissue (cranial lung lobes) and lymph nodes||Leptotrichiaceae, Fusobacterium, Mycoplasma, Trueperella, and Bacteroides had greater relative abundances in lung samples collected from fatal BRD cases, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions. Leptotrichiaceae, Mycoplasma and Pasteurellaceae had higher relative abundances in lymph nodes collected from fatal BRD cases, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions.||Johnston et al,|
|Preweaned dairy calves||Longitudinal: 1 population sampled at 14 d and 28 d of life. During the study period, calves had BRD (n = 6) or remained healthy (n = 10).||DNS||The relative abundance of Pseudomonas fluorescens was higher in BRD calves at d 14 compared with CTRL. M haemolytica S1 and non-S1 were numerically higher at d 14 in calves with BRD compared with CTRL.||Gaeta et al,|
|Longitudinal: 1 population sampled at 3 d, 14 d, 28 d, and 35 d of life. During the study period, calves had BRD (n = 37), otitis media (n = 62), or BRD and otitis media (n = 11) or remained healthy (n = 64).||DNS||At d 3, heathy calves had significantly lower total bacterial loads in their nasopharynx than calves with BRD. The relative abundances of Mannheimia and Moraxella were higher in BRD calves at d 14. The relative abundance of Mannheimia and Mycoplasma were higher in BRD calves at d 28. Richness and diversity did not differ among groups.||Lima et al,|
|Preweaned dairy calves and their dams||Longitudinal; 1 population of calves sampled at 3 d, 14 d, and 35 d of age. During the study period, calves had BRD (n = 16), otitis media (n = 28), or BRD and otitis media (n = 5) or remained healthy (n = 32). Their dams were sampled just before calving.||DNS and vaginal swabs (for the dams)||The relative abundance of Mannheimia was significantly higher at d 14 in animals that eventually developed BRD than in calves that remained healthy. The genera Porphyromonas and Campylobacter were relatively more abundant in the vaginal microbiota of dams whose progeny developed disease, and Mannheimia and Caloramator were relatively more abundant in the vaginal microbiota of dams whose progeny remained healthy.||Lima et al,|
- McDaneld T.G.
- Kuehn L.A.
- Keele J.W.
Role of the Overall Diversity and Stability of the Microbiota on Respiratory Health
Modulation of the bacterial respiratory microbiota to promote health
Definition, Mechanisms of Action, and Possible Application Route of Probiotics
- 1.The microorganism is present in high abundance in healthy animals and decreased abundance in those suffering from a disease.
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- 3.The cultured organism should promote health when introduced into a diseased animal.
- 4.Because probiotics are, by definition, administered as live organisms, it should be possible to reisolate these microorganisms from the healthy experimental host and confirm that they are identical to the original specific causative agents.
Intranasal Administration of Probiotics in Cattle
Other Strategies: Bacteriophages and Prebiotics
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- Hallewell J.
- Booker C.
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