Pathogenesis of Liver Abscesses in Cattle


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Hathaway S.C.
        • Bullians J.A.
        • Johnstone A.C.
        • et al.
        A pathological and microbiological evaluation of omphalophlebitis in very young calves slaughtered in New Zealand.
        N Z Vet J. 1993; 41: 166-170
        • Scanlan C.M.
        • Hathcock T.L.
        Bovine rumenitis - liver abscess complex: a bacteriological review.
        Cornell Vet. 1983; 73: 288-297
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Chengappa M.M.
        Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle: a review.
        J Anim Sci. 1998; 76: 287-298
        • Amachawadi R.G.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        Liver abscesses in cattle: a review of incidence in Holsteins and of bacteriology and vaccine approaches to control in feedlot cattle.
        J Anim Sci. 2016; 94: 1620-1632
        • Edwards J.E.
        • McEwan N.R.
        • McKain N.
        • et al.
        Influence of flavomycin on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations in sheep.
        Microbiology (Reading). 2005; 151: 717-725
        • Tan Z.L.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Chengappa M.M.
        Fusobacterium necrophorum infections: virulence factors, pathogenic mechanism and control measures.
        Vet Res Commun. 1996; 20: 113-140
        • Shinjo T.
        • Fujisawa T.
        • Mitsuoka T.
        Proposal of two subspecies of Fusobacterium necrophorum (Flugge) Moore and Holdeman: Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum subsp. nov., nom. rev. (ex Flugge 1886), and Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. funduliforme subsp. nov., nom. rev. (ex Halle 1898).
        Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1991; 41: 395-397
        • Tadepalli S.
        • Narayanan S.K.
        • Stewart G.C.
        • et al.
        Fusobacterium necrophorum: a ruminal bacterium that invades liver to cause abscesses in cattle.
        Anaerobe. 2009; 15: 36-43
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Narayanan S.K.
        • Stewart G.C.
        • et al.
        Fusobacterium necrophorum infections in animals: pathogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms.
        Anaerobe. 2005; 11: 239-246
        • Lechtenberg K.F.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        Hepatic ultrasonography and blood changes in steers with experimentally induced liver abscesses.
        Am J Vet Res. 1991; 52: 803-809
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Lechtenberg K.F.
        Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle.
        Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2007; 23: 351-369
        • Abe P.M.
        • Lennard E.S.
        • Holland J.W.
        Fusobacterium necrophorum infection in mice as a model for the study of liver abscess formation and induction of immunity.
        Infect Immun. 1976; 13: 1473-1478
        • Lechtenberg K.F.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Leipold H.W.
        • et al.
        Bacteriologic and histologic studies of hepatic abscesses in cattle.
        Am J Vet Res. 1988; 49: 58-62
        • Smith H.A.
        Ulcerative lesions of the bovine rumen and their possible relation to hepatic abscesses.
        Am J Vet Res. 1944; 5: 234-242
        • Jensen R.
        • Deane H.M.
        • Cooper L.J.
        • et al.
        The rumenitis-liver abscess complex in beef cattle.
        Am J Vet Res. 1954; 15: 202-216
        • Rezac D.J.
        • Thomson D.U.
        • Bartle S.J.
        • et al.
        Prevalence, severity, and relationships of lung lesions, liver abnormalities, and rumen health scores measured at slaughter in beef cattle.
        J Anim Sci. 2014; 92: 2595-2602
        • Coe M.L.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Sun Y.D.
        • et al.
        Effect of virginiamycin on ruminal fermentation in cattle during adaptation to a high concentrate diet and during an induced acidosis.
        J Anim Sci. 1999; 77: 2259-2268
        • Narayanan S.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Okwumabua O.
        • et al.
        Ribotyping to compare Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from bovine liver abscesses, ruminal walls, and ruminal contents.
        Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997; 63: 4671-4678
        • Gressley T.F.
        • Hall M.B.
        • Armentano L.E.
        Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants.
        J Anim Sci. 2011; 89: 1120-1130
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Titgemeyer E.C.
        Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: the current microbiological and nutritional outlook.
        J Dairy Sci. 2007; 90: E17-E38
        • Garcia M.B.
        • Bradford B.J.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        Invited Review: ruminal microbes, microbial products, and systemic inflammation.
        Prof Ani Scientist. 2017; 33: 635-650
        • Li S.
        • Khafipour E.
        • Krause D.O.
        • et al.
        Effects of subacute ruminal acidosis challenges on fermentation and endotoxins in the rumen and hindgut of dairy cows.
        J Dairy Sci. 2012; 95: 294-303
        • Plaizier J.C.
        • Li S.
        • Tun H.M.
        • et al.
        Nutritional models of experimentally-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) differ in their impact on rumen and hindgut bacterial communities in dairy cows.
        Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 2128
        • Thoefner M.B.
        • Pollitt C.C.
        • van Eps A.W.
        • et al.
        Acute bovine laminitis: A new induction model using alimentary oligofructose overload.
        J Dairy Sci. 2004; 87: 2932-2940
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Towne G.
        • Beharka A.A.
        1992. Moderation of ruminal fermentation by ciliated protozoa in cattle fed a high-grain diet.
        Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992; 58: 2410-2414
        • Miyazato S.
        • Shinjo T.
        • Yago H.
        • et al.
        Fimbriae (pili) detected in Fusobacterium necrophorum.
        Jap J Vet Sci. 1978; 40: 619-621
        • Brook I.
        • Walker R.I.
        The relationship between Fusobacterium species and other flora in mixed infection.
        J Med Microbiol. 1986; 21: 93-100
        • Kumar A.
        • Peterson G.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • et al.
        Outer membrane proteins of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme.
        J Basic Microbiol. 2014; 54: 812-817
        • Kumar A.
        • Menon S.
        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • et al.
        Identification of an outer membrane protein of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp necrophorum that binds with high affinity to bovine endothelial cells.
        Vet Microbiol. 2015; 176: 196-201
        • Han Y.W.
        • Ikegami A.
        • Rajanna C.
        • et al.
        Identification and characterization of a novel adhesin unique to oral fusobacteria.
        J Bacteriol. 2005; 187: 5330-5340
        • Shinjo T.
        • Kiyoyama H.
        Pathogenicity of a non-hemagglutinating mutant strain of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A in mice.
        Jap J Vet Sci. 1986; 48: 523-527
        • Takayama Y.
        • Kanoe M.
        • Maeda K.
        • et al.
        Adherence of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum to ruminal cells derived from bovine rumenitis.
        Lett Appl Microbiol. 2000; 30: 308-311
        • Uitto V.J.
        • Baillie D.
        • Wu Q.
        • et al.
        Fusobacterium nucleatum increases collagenase 3 production and migration of epithelial cells.
        Infect Immun. 2005; 73: 1171-1179
        • Narayanan S.
        • Stewart G.C.
        • Chengappa M.M.
        • et al.
        Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin induces activation and apoptosis of bovine leukocytes.
        Infect Immun. 2002; 70: 4609-4620
      1. Emery DL. Vaughn JA, Clark BL, et al. Virulence determinants of Fusobacterium necrophorum and their prophylactic potential in animals. Paper presented at: Foot rot in Ruminants1986; Melbourne Australia.

        • Nagaraja T.G.
        • Beharka A.B.
        • Chengappa M.M.
        • et al.
        Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle fed tylosin or no tylosin.
        J Anim Sci. 1999; 77: 973-978
        • Purvis T.J.
        Sarcina ventriculi as a potential cause of omasal bloat in neonatal calves and the bacterial flora of liver abscesses in dairy cattle, MS Thesis.
        Kansas State University, 2006
        • Amachawadi R.G.
        • Purvis T.J.
        • Lubbers B.V.
        • et al.
        Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in crossbred beef cattle and Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin.
        J Anim Sci. 2017; 95: 3425-3434
        • Herrick T.T.
        • Rogers C.L.
        • McEvers T.J.
        • et al.
        Exploratory observational quantification of liver abscess incidence, specific to region and cattle type, and their associations to viscera value and bacterial flora.
        Appl Anim Sci. 2022; 38: 170-182